Spatial organisation concepts for living spaces with two centres
In a functional sense, the centre of the living space is a gathering area for its users and for visitors. In most cases, the living area has at least one space towards which its users gravitate daily or occasionally. In situations where there are two or more centres in the living area, their position, size and connection determine the character of the functional organization, and they result from the social needs of the users. This paper analyzes characteristic examples of how dwellings are organized with several gathering centres, drawing out three basic concepts: a) living space with centres grouped in a social zone, b) living space with a flexible centre on the boundary between zones and c) living space with a secondary centre in a private area. On the other hand, attention is drawn to the existence of different boundaries of territoriality (boundaries of ownership, hospitality and intimacy), which determine the domains of social, private and intimate zones in housing. Depending on whether the gathering centres are located on one side, on the other, or along the border of territoriality, the degree of intimacy of the living space also changes.
Alfirević, Đ., Simonović Alfirević S. (2017) ’Salonski’ stan između dva svetska rata u Srbiji: Preispitivanje opravdanosti korišćenja termina, Arhitektura i urbanizam, No. 44, pp. 7–13. [Alfirević, Đ., Simonović Alfirević, S. (2017) ‘Salon’ Apartment in Serbia Between the Two World Wars: Reassessing the Rationale Behind the Term, Arhitektura i urbanizam, No. 44, pp. 7-13.]
Alfirević, Đ., Simonović Alfirević S. (2018a) Constitutive Motives in Living Space Organisation, Facta Universitatis: Architecture and Civil Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 189–201.
Alfirević, Đ., Simonović Alfirević S. (2018b) ’Socialist Apartment’ in Yugoslavia: Paradigm or Tendency?, Spatium, No. 40, pp. 8–17.
Bajlon, M. (1979) Stanovanje - Tema 1: Organizacija stana. Beograd: Univerzitet u Beogradu, Arhitektonski fakultet. [Bajlon, M. (1979) Housing - Theme 1: Organization of the Apartment. Belgrade: University of Belgrade - Faculty of Architecture.]
Bajlon, M. (1975) Stan u Beogradu, Arhitektura urbanizam, No. 74-77, pp. 23–42. [Bajlon, M. (1975) Apartment in Belgrade, Arhitektura urbanizam, No. 74-77, pp. 23-42.]
Bajlon, M. (1972) Neka pitanja sa upotrebnom vrednosti stana, Izgradnja, special issue, Stan i stanovanje, pp. 27–38. [Bajlon, M. (1972) Some Issues with the Apartment Utility Value, Izgradnja, special issue: Apartment and Housing, pp. 27-38.]
Cromley, E. (2004) Domestic Space Transformed, 1850–2000, in Ballantyne, A. (ed.) Architectures Modernism and After, Blackwell Publishing, pp. 163–201.
Čanak, M. (1976) Funkcionalna koncepcija i upotrebna vrednost stana. Beograd: Institut za ispitivanje materijala, Centar za stanovanje. [Čanak, M. (1976) Functional Conception and the Apartment Utility Value. Belgrade: Institute for testing of materials, Center for housing.]
Čanak, M. (2013) Otvoren ili zatvoren stan, Arhitektura i urbanizam, No. 38, pp. 66–77. [Čanak, M. (2013) Opened or Closed Apartment, Arhitektra i urbanizam, No. 38, pp. 66-77.]
Edney, J. (1974) Human Territoriality, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 81, No. 12, pp. 959–975.
Efran, M., Cheyne, J. (1973) Shared Space: The Co-operative Control of Spatial Areas by Two Interacting Individuals, Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 201–210.
Fiese, B. (2006) Family Routines and Rituals, New Haven: Yale University Press.
Gifford, R. (1983) The Experience of Personal Space: Perception of Interpersonal Distance, Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 170–178.
Goffman, E. (1956) The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, Monograph 2. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, Social sciences research centre.
Gür, Ş. Ö. (2013) How Children Describe Their Houses: Present vs. Ideal, Child Indicators Research, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 493–525.
Hall, E. (1966) The Hidden Dimension, Garden City, New York: Anchor Books.
Kale, S. (2005) French Salons: High Society and Political Sociability from the Old Regime to the Revolution of 1848, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Knežević, G. (1989) Višestambene zgrade. Zagreb: Tehnička knjiga. [Knežević, G. (1989) Condominium Buildings. Zagreb: Tehnička knjiga.]
Marušić, D. (1999) Projektovanje 2: Višeporodično stanovanje, Sveska 6. Beograd: Univerzitet u Beogradu, Arhitektonski fakultet. [Marušić, D. (1999) Designing 2: Multy-family Housing, Tome 6. Belgrade: University of Belgrade - Faculty of Architecture.]
Montgomery, J. (1972) The Housing Patterns of Older Families, The Family Coordinator, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 37–46.
Nasır, E. B., Öğüt, S. T., Gürel, M. (2015) Changing Uses of the Middle-Class Living Room in Turkey: The Transformation of the Closed-Salon Phenomenon, Intercultural Understanding, No. 5, pp. 15–19.
Porteous, D. (1976) Home: The Territorial Core, Geographical Review, Vol. 66, No. 4, pp. 383–390.
Rechavi, T. (2009) A Room for Living: Private and Public Aspects in the Experience of the Living Room, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 133–143.
Ristić, J. (2009) Stambena arhitektura elite kao prostor za performans društvenih vrednosti, Nauka+Praksa, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 69–72. [Ristić, J. (2009) Residential Architecture of the Elite as a Space for Social Values Performance, Nauka+Praksa, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 69–72.]
Seda Dazkır, S. (2013) The Design, Meaning and Use of the Turkish Salon, PhD Thesys, Corvallis: Oregon State University.
Sorokowska, A., Sorokowski, P., Hilpert, Peter. (2017) Preferred Interpersonal Distances: A Global Comparison, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 48, No. 4, pp. 577–592.
Strube, M., Werner, C. (1982) Interpersonal Distance and Personal Space: A Conceptual and Methodological Note, Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 163–170.