Urban transport in world metropolises: A comparative analysis and key features of energy consumption
Most theoretical and empirical research on the subject of urban transport energy consumption has addressed the role of urban form and urban spatial structure (primarily population density and degree of centralisation), city size (population and/or area), the level of economic development, transport patterns, and transportation infrastructure. Our analysis encompasses a wide range of socio-economic, spatial, transport and infrastructure indicators, as well as energy efficiency and energy consumption indicators in a sample of 35 world cities, covering the period from 1960 to 2005. Comparative analysis indicates there are significant differences regarding the determinants of urban transport energy consumption, especially between the US and Australian automobile-dependent cities, on the one hand, and the wealthy Asian metropolises, on the other. Despite some recent positive trends (a decline in automobile vehicle-kilometres and reduction in urban transport energy consumption), a large number of cities in the developed world still rely predominantly on cars, while sustainable modes of urban transport play an almost negligible role. Due to trends of urbanization, demographic growth and a rise in living standards, the main focus of attention has shifted to metropolises in developing countries. In the long run, the urban form itself is particularly significant, not only because it critically influences transport demand, but also because of its inertness.
Assmann, D., Sieber, N. (2005). Transport in Developing Countries: Renewable Energy versus Energy Reduction? Transport Reviews, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 719–738. https://doi.org/10.1080/01441640500361066
Banister, D. (1992). Energy use, transport and settlement patterns. In M. Breheny (Ed.), Sustainable Development and Urban Form. London: Pion Ltd, pp. 160–181.
Banister, D. (2011). Cities, Mobility and Climate Change, Journal of Transport Geography, Vol. 19, No. 6, pp. 1538–1546. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2011.03.009
Barter, P. A. (2005). A vehicle quota integrated with road usage pricing: A mechanism to complete the phase-out of high fixed vehicle taxes in Singapore, Transport Policy, Vol. 12, pp. 525– 536.
Bongardt, D., Breithaupt, M., Creutzig, F. (2010). Beyond the Fossil City: Towards Low Carbon Transport and Green Growth. Eschborn: GTZ.
Bongardt, D., Creutzig, F., Hüging, H., Sakamoto, K., Bakker, S., Gota, S., Böhler-Baedeker, S. (2013). Low-carbon Land Transport: Policy Handbook. Oxon: Routledge.
Cervero, R. (2002). Induced Travel Demand: Research Design, Empirical Evidence, and Normative Policies, Journal of Planning Literature, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 3–20. https://doi.org/10.1177/088122017001001
Cervero, R., Hansen, M. (2002). Induced Travel Demand and Induced Road Investment: A Simultaneous Equation Analysis, Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 469–490. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20053915
Chin, A.T.H. (1996). Containing air pollution and traffic congestion: transport policy and the environment in Singapore, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 30, No. 5, pp. 787– 801. https://doi.org/10.1016/1352-2310(95)00173-5
Choi, H. (2013). International comparative analysis on urban transportation energy consumption. (Doctoral dissertation, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan). https://repository.kulib.kyotou.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2433/180491/2/dkogk03787.pdf [Accessed: 03 Oct 2018].
Clark, T.A. (2013). Metropolitan density, energy efficiency and carbon emissions: Multi-attribute tradeoffs and their policy implications, Energy Policy, Vol. 53, pp. 413–428. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.11.006
Creutzig, F., Baiocchi, G., Bierkandt, R., Pichler, P. P., Seto, K. C. (2015). Global typology of urban energy use and potentials for an urbanization mitigation wedge. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 20, pp. 6283–6288. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1315545112
Diao, M. (2018). Towards sustainable urban transport in Singapore: Policy instruments and mobility trends, Transport Policy, Available online 22 May 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2018.05.005
Dimitropoulos, A., Oueslati, W., Sintek, C. (2018). The Rebound Effect in Road Transport: A Meta-Analysis of Empirical Studies, Energy Economics, Vol. 75, pp. 163–179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2018.07.021
ECMT (1998). Infrastructure-Induced Mobility. Paris: OECD.
Ewing, R., Cervero, R. (2010). Travel and the built environment: a meta analysis, Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 76, pp. 265–294. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944361003766766
Frederick, C.P. (2016). Constructing urban life: a study of automobile dependency in 148 mid-size U. S. cities. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisville, Louisville, USA). https://ir.library.louisville.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3494&context=etd [Accessed: 12 Sep 2018].
Geels, F. W., Kemp, R., Dudley, G., Lyons, G. (2012). Automobility in Transition: A Socio-Technical Analysis of Sustainable Transport. Oxfordshire: Routledge.
Goodwin, P. B. (1996). Empirical evidence on induced traffic. Transportation, Vol. 23, pp. 35–54.
GTZ (2012). Urban Transport and Energy Efficiency. Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-makers in Developing Cities. Eschborn: GTZ.
Hickman, R., Hall, P., Banister, D. (2013). Planning More for Sustainable Mobility, Journal of Transport Geography, Vol. 33, pp. 210–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2013.07.004
Hu, X., Chang, S., Li, J., Qin, Y. (2010). Energy for sustainable road transportation in China: Challenges, initiatives and policy implications, Energy, Vol. 35, No. 11, pp. 4289–4301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2009.05.024
International Energy Agency (2009). World energy outlook 2009. Paris: OECD.
International Energy Agency (2018). World Energy Outlook 2018. Paris: OECD/IEA.
Jovanović, M. (2005). Međuzavisnost koncepta urbanog razvoja i saobraćajne strategije velikog grada. Beograd: Geografski fakultet.
Jovanović, M. (2008). Urbano planiranje, automobilska zavisnost i održivi razvoj evropskih metropola, Industrija, Vol. 1, pp. 17–42. https://scindeks.ceon.rs/article.aspx?artid=0350-03730801017J
Jovanović, M. (2009). Bogate azijske metropole – planski razvoj gradskog saobraćaja i urbane forme, Industrija, Vol. 1, pp. 19–41. https://scindeks.ceon.rs/article.aspx?artid=0350-03730901019J
Jovanovic, M. (2012). Kuznets curve and urban transport the scope of I+M programs, Glasnik Srpskog Geografskog Drustva, Vol. 92, No. 4, pp. 127–142. https://doi.org/10.2298/GSGD1204127J
Jovanović, M. (2014). Gradski saobraćaj i životna sredina. Beograd: Geografski fakultet.
Kakar, K. A., Prasad, C. S. R. K. (2020). Impact of Urban Sprawl on Travel Demand for Public Transport, Private Transport and Walking, Transportation Research Procedia, Vol. 48(2019), pp. 1881–1892. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2020.08.221
Karathodorou, N., Graham, D. J., Noland, R. B. (2010). Estimating the effect of urban density on fuel demand, Energy Economics, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 86–92. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140-9883(09)00077-2
Kasraian, D., Maat, K., Stead, D., van Wee, B. (2016). Long-term impacts of transport infrastructure networks on land-use change: an international review of empirical studies, Transport Reviews, Vol. 36, No. 6, pp. 772–792. https://doi.org/10.1080/01441647.2016.1168887
Kenworthy, J. R., Newman, P. (1989). Cities and automobile dependence: An international sourcebook. Aldershot: Gower Publishing.
Kenworthy, J. R., Laube, F. B. (1999). Patterns of automobile dependence in cities: An international overview of key physical and economic dimensions with some implications for urban policy, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Vol. 33, No. 7–8, pp. 691–723.
Kenworthy, J. R., Laube, F. B., Newman, P. (1999). An International Sourcebook of Automobile Dependence in Cities, 1960-1990. Boulder: University Press of Colorado.
Kenworthy, J. R., Laube, F. B. (2001). The Millennium Cities Database for Sustainable Transport. Brussels: UITP.
Kenworthy, J. R. (2003). Transport Energy Use and Greenhouse Gases in Urban Passenger Transport Systems: A Study of 84 Global Cities. Third Conference of the Regional Government Network for Sustainable Development, pp. 1–28.
Kenworthy, J. (2013). Decoupling Urban Car Use and Metropolitan GDP Growth, World Transport Policy and Practice, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 7–21.
Kenworthy, J. R. (2017). Is automobile dependence in emerging cities an irresistible force? Perspectives from São Paulo, Taipei, Prague, Mumbai, Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou, Sustainability (Switzerland), Vol. 9, No. 11. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9111953
Leck, E. (2006). The impact of urban form on travel behavior: A meta-analysis, Berkeley Planning Journal, Vol. 19, pp. 37–58. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/20s78772
Lefèvre, B. (2009). Long-term energy consumptions of urban transportation: A prospective simulation of “transport-land uses” policies in Bangalore, Energy Policy, Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 940–953.
Lefèvre, B. (2010). Urban Transport Energy Consumption: Determinants and Strategies for its Reduction. An analysis of the literature, Cities and Climate Change, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 1–17.
Leung, A., Burke, M., Perl, A., Cui, J. (2018). The peak oil and oil vulnerability discourse in urban transport policy: A comparative discourse analysis of Hong Kong and Brisbane, Transport Policy, Vol. 65, pp. 5–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2017.03.023
Li, P., Zhao, P., & Brand, C. (2018). Future energy use and CO2 emissions of urban passenger transport in China: A travel behavior and urban form based approach, Applied Energy, Vol. 211(Dec 2017), pp. 820–842. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.11.022
Liddle, B. (2013). Urban density and climate change: a STIRPAT analysis using city-level data, Journal of Transport Geography, Vol. 28, pp. 22–29. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/id/eprint/52089
Liddle, B. (2015). Urban Transport Pollution: Revisiting the Environmental Kuznets Curve, International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, Vol. 9, No. 7, pp. 502–508. https://doi.org/10.1080/15568318.2013.814077
Lin, B., & Du, Z. (2017). Can urban rail transit curb automobile energy consumption?, Energy Policy, Vol. 105, pp. 120–127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2017.02.038
Litman, T. (2001). Generated Traffic and Induced Travel: Implications for Transport Planning, ITE Journal, Vol. 71, No. 4, pp. 38–47.
Litman, T. (2004). Evaluating Transportation Land Use Impacts. Victoria: Victoria Transport Policy Institute.
Litman, T. (2007). Land Use Impacts on Transport: How Land Use Factors Affect Travel Behaviour. Victoria: Victoria Transport Policy Institute.
McIntosh, J., Trubka, R., Kenworthy, J., Newman, P. (2014). The role of urban form and transit in city car dependence: Analysis of 26 global cities from 1960 to 2000, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Vol. 33, pp. 95–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2014.08.013
Milakis, D., Cervero, R., van Wee, B. (2015). Stay local or go regional? Urban form effects on vehicle use at different spatial scales: A theoretical concept and its application to the san francisco bay area, Journal of Transport and Land Use, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 59–86. https://doi.org/10.5198/jtlu.2015.557
Millard-Ball, A., Schipper, L. (2011). Are We Reaching Peak Travel? Trends in Passenger Transport in Eight Industrialized Countries, Transport Reviews, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 357–378. https://doi.org/10.1080/01441647.2010.518291
Næss, P., Vogel, N. (2012). Sustainable Urban Development and the Multi-Level Transition Perspective, Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, Vol. 4, pp. 36–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eist.2012.07.001
Næss, P. (2012). Urban form and travel behavior: Experience from a Nordic context, Journal of Transport and Land Use, Vol. 5, No. (2), pp. 21–45. https://doi.org/10.5198/jtlu.v5i2.314
Næss, P., Strand, A., Wolday, F., Stefansdottir, H. (2019). Residential location, commuting and non-work travel in two urban areas of different size and with different center structures, Progress in Planning, Vol. 128, pp. 1–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progress.2017.10.002
Newman, P., Kenworthy, J. R. (1999). Sustainability and cities: Overcoming automobile dependence. Washington D. C.: Island Press.
Newman, P., Kenworthy, J. (2011). ‘Peak Car Use’: Understanding the Demise of Automobile Dependence, World Transport Policy & Practice, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 31–42. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11937/23589
Newman, P., Kenworthy, J. R. (2015). The End of Automobile Dependence: How Cities Are Moving Beyond Car-Based Planning. Washington D. C.: Island Press.
OECD/IEA (2017). Global EV Outlook 2017: Two Million and Counting. Paris: International Energy Agency.
OECD (2010). Cities and Climate Change. Paris: OECD.
OECD (2018). Rethinking Urban Sprawl: Moving Towards Sustainable Cities. Paris: OECD.
Puentes, R., Tomer, A. (2008). The Road... Less Travelled: An Analysis of Vehicle Miles Traveled Trends in the U.S. (Issue December), Brookings Institution. https://www.brookings.edu/wpcontent/uploads/2016/06/vehicle_miles_traveled_report.pdf [Accessed: 11 Jan 2019].
Rickaby, P. (1991). Energy and urban development in an archetypal English town, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Vol. 18, pp. 153–176. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23288517
Rode, P., Burdett, R. (2011). Cities: Investing in energy and resource efficiency. In UNEP (Ed.), Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication. Nairobi: UNEP.
Schafer, A., Victor, D. G. (2000). The future mobility of the world population, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Vol. 34, pp. 171–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0965-8564(98)00071-8
Seah, C.M. (1980). Mass mobility and accessibility: transport planning and traffic management in Singapore, Transport Policy and Decision Making, Vol. 1, pp. 55–71.
Shim, G.-E., Rhee, S.-M., Ahn, K.-H., Chung, S.-B. (2006). The relationship between the characteristics of transportation energy consumption and urban form, The Annals of Regional Science, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 351–367.
Stead, D., Marshall, S. (2001). The Relationships between Urban Form and Travel Patterns. An International Review and Evaluation, European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 113–141. https://doi.org/10.18757/ejtir.2001.1.2.3497
Stevens, M. R. (2017). Does Compact Development Make People Drive Less?, Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 83, No. 1, pp. 7–18. http://hdl.handle.net/10.1080/01944363.2016.1240044
Timilsina, G. R., Dulal, H. B. (2010). Urban Road Transportation Externalities: Costs and Choice of Policy Instruments, The World Bank Research Observer, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 162–191. https://doi.org/10.1093/wbro/lkq005
UN-Habitat (2011). Cities and Climate Change. London: Earthscan.
UN-Habitat (2018). DG 11 Synthesis Report 2018: Tracking Progress Towards Inclusive, Safe, Resilient and Sustainable Cities and Human Settlements. http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/sdg11-synthesis-report-2018-en.pdf
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. (2015). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2015 Revision. New York: United Nations.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2018). World Urbanization Prospects The 2018 Revision. New York: United Nations.
Van Acker, V. (2021). Urban form and travel behavior: The interplay with residential self-selection and residential dissonance. In C. Mulley & J. D. Nelson (Eds.), Urban Form and Accessibility. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 83–105.
Vuchic, V. (2007). Urban transit systems and technology. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Webb, J. (2019). The Future of Transport : Literature Review and Overview, Economic Analysis and Policy, Vol. 61, pp. 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eap.2019.01.002
Wen, L., Kenworthy, J., Guo, X., Marinova, D. (2019). Solving Traffic Congestion through Street Renaissance: A Perspective from Dense Asian Cities, Urban Science, Vol. 3, No. 18, pp. 1–21. https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci3010018
Wu, N., Zhao, S., Zhang, Q. (2016). A study on the determinants of private car ownership in China: Findings from the panel data, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Vol. 85, pp. 186–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2016.01.012
Zhao, P., Diao, J., Li, S. (2017). The influence of urban structure on individual transport energy consumption in China’s growing cities, Habitat International, Vol. 66, pp. 95–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2017.06.001