Multicultural needs and the perception of central public spaces in major Lithuanian cities
The paper presents an analysis of the needs and perception of different ethnic groups with regard to public spaces in the central areas of major Lithuanian cities, and an evaluation of the possibilities for implementing solutions to them, in order to highlight the needs within the spatial structures. Three research methods were chosen to determine the importance of the needs of different cultures when creating public spaces. The first is a sociological survey of the opinion of different ethnic groups based on three main models of environmental psychology: the natural, physical and the social and behavioural environments. The second is a stimulatory-comparative sociological survey of the opinion of different ethnic groups, and the third is the expert assessment of the level of attractiveness of existing public spaces in major Lithuanian cities based on Nikos Salingaros’ parameters according to a classification of visual information into morphological/structural and harmony-related evaluation parameters, which were evaluated by respondents and by observations in situ. The main findings of the research showed the importance of the needs of different cultures in public space, and the principle of harmony between human beings and the environment was highlighted in the main morphological and harmony-related features of public spaces, such as spaciousness, small architectural elements, dominant objects/buildings and the abundance of trees/greenery.
AlShehri, A. (2018). Superkilen: Case study of the public urban space in Copenhagen, Denmark. Scribd [online]. https://www.scribd.com/document/446431669/CASE-STUDY [Accessed: 26 Feb 2022].
Amin, A. (2008). Collective culture and urban public space, City, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 5-24. https://doi.org/10.1080/13604810801933495
Akram, A. (2015). Afghan Bazaar Cultural Precinct / HASSELL. ArchDaily [online]. https://www.archdaily.com/637568/afghan-bazaar-cultural-precinct-hassell [Accessed: 18 Oct 2020].
Bernardo, F., Palma-Oliveira, J. (2016). Urban neighbourhoods and intergroup relations: the importance of place identity, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol. 45, pp. 239–251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2016.01.010
Kamičaitytė, J., Gražulevičiūtė-Vileniškė, I., Gadal, S. (2019). Role of multicultural identity in landscape perception and methodological possibilities of its interdisciplinary analysis, Scientific Journal of Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies Landscape Architecture and Art, Vol. 15, No. 15, pp. 65-74. https://doi.org/10.22616/j.landarchart.2019.15.07
Klinger, A., Salingaros, N. A. (2000). A pattern measure, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 537-547. https://doi.org/10.1068/b2676
Land8 - Landscape Architects Network. (2014). Superkilen: A Public Space to Feel at Home. Land8 [online]. https://land8.com/superkilen-a-public-space-to-feel-at-home/ [Accessed: 24 Sep 2020]
Lesan, M. (2015). Public Streets for Multicultural Use. (Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zeland). Core. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/41339654.pdf [Accessed: 24 Sep 2020].
Maddox, J. (1990). Complicated measures of complexity, Nature, Vol. 344, pp. 705. https://doi.org/10.1038/344705a0
Peters, K. (2011). Living together in multi-ethnic neighborhoods: The meaning of public spaces for issues of social integration. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.
Povilaitienė, I., Kamičaitytė-Virbašienė, J., Zaleckis, K. (2015). Evaluation of Formants of Cityscape Identity using Fractal Analysis (Kaunas Case), Architecture and Urban Planning, Vol. 14, pp. 96-104. https://doi.org/10.2478/aup-2018-0013
Rosenfield, K. (2015). FR-EE Proposes to Restore Mexico City Avenue with Cultural Corridor Chapultepec. ArchDaily [online]. https://www.archdaily.com/772173/fr-ee-proposes-cultural-corridor-chapultepec-in-mexico-city?ad_medium=gallery [Accessed: 18 Oct 2020].