Strategic spatial planning in the era of crisis: Current trends and evidence from the metropolitan area of Thessaloniki
Strategic spatial planning has enjoyed widespread implementation since the 1990s, especially in urban and metropolitan areas, having its focus on promoting their competitiveness and sustainability. Nowadays, the effects of economic crisis, together with growing environmental and technological risks, trigger the vulnerability of these areas and stress the need for resilience. This paper examines the role of strategic spatial planning in promoting metropolitan resilience in the era of crisis. It is argued that this type of planning is capable of supporting the adaptation of territorial systems to crisis-induced risks, as is, for instance, the case of planning for climate change. This is further analyzed in light of four of the key aspects of the new strategic spatial planning, namely its principles, content, process, and utilization of resources. The paper draws evidence from the case of Greece and examines the abovementioned aspects of the recently prepared new Regulatory Plan for the Thessaloniki greater area. The first results of this examination show that, provided there is political will which allows for necessary adjustments, the Plan has the potential to incorporate the dimension of resilience. The elaboration and exploitation of the strategic nature of the Plan and of its sustainable development principle constitute key elements of a resilience-oriented approach.
Albers, M., Deppisch, S. (2012) Resilience in the Light of Climate Change: Useful Approach or Empty Phrase for Spatial Planning? European Planning Studies, i First article, pp. 1–13.
Albrechts, L. (2011) Strategic Planning and Regional Governance in Europe: Recent trends in strategic planning and responses to address emerging issues and problems. In: Yeh, A., Xu, J. (eds) China’s Pan-Perl River Delta. Regional Cooperation and Development. Hong Kong University Press, pp. 15–42.
Albrechts, L., Healey, P., Kunzmann, K.R. (2003) Strategic Spatial Planning and Regional Governance in Europe. APA Journal + Spring, Vol. (69)2, pp. 113–129.
Ball, M. (2010) Critical Commentary. Cities and Housing Markets: Changes and Continuities in the Aftermath of the 2007–08 World Financial Crisis. Urban Studies, Vol. 47(5), pp. 931– 944.
Beriatos, E. (2012) Public Administration Reform – the Kallikratis Program: a regional planning and geographical approach. In: citybranding.gr, http://www.citybranding.gr/2012/11/blog-post_12.html, (accessed 1st February 2013) (in Greek).
Brenner, N. (2003) Metropolitan institutional reform and the rescaling of state space in contemporary Western Europe. European Urban and Regional Studies, Vol. 10(4), pp. 297–324.
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society (CJRES) (2010) The Resilient Region, Vol. 3(1).
Clark, G. (2009) Recession, Recovery and Reinvestment: the role of local economic leadership in a global crisis. OECD, http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/18/48/43569599.pdf, (accessed 1st May, 2012).
Cohen, M.P. (2011) Cities in Times of Crisis: The Response of Local Governments in Light of the Global Economic Crisis: the role of the formation of human capital, urban innovation and strategic planning. Berkeley Institute of Urban and Regional Development, Working Paper 2011–01, http://www.iurd.berkeley.edu/publications/wp/2011-01.pdf, (accessed 1st May, 2012).
Davoudi, S., Crawford, J., Mehmood, A. (2009) Planning for Climate Change: Strategies for Mitigation and Adaptation for Spatial Planners. Earthscan.
Davoudi, S., Shaw, K., Haider, L.J., Quinlan, A. E., Peterson, G.D., Wilkinson, C., Fünfgeld, H., McEvoy, D, Porter, L. & Davoudi, S. (2012): Resilience: A Bridging Concept or a Dead End? “Reframing” Resilience: Challenges for Planning Theory and Practice Interacting Traps: Resilience Assessment of a Pasture Management System in Northern Afghanistan Urban Resilience: What Does it Mean in Planning Practice? Resilience as a Useful Concept for Climate Change Adaptation? The Politics of Resilience for Planning: A Cautionary Note. Planning Theory & Practice, Vol. 13(2), pp. 299–333.
Delladetsimas, P.M. (2012) Sustainable Development and Spatial Planning: Some considerations arising from the Greek case. European Journal of Spatial Development, No. 46, http://www.nordregio.se/Global/EJSD/Refereed%20articles/refereed46.pdf, (accessed 1st February 2013).
Dos Santos, F.T., Partidário, M.R. (2011) SPARK: Strategic Planning Approach for Resilience Keeping. European Planning Studies, Vol. 19(8), pp. 1517–1536.
ESPON (2011) ESPON Climate: Climate Change and Territorial Effects on Regions and Local Economies, Applied Research 2013/1/4 Final Report Version 31/5/2011 Main Report, Luxembourg: ESPON & IRPUD, TU Dortmund, http://www.espon.eu/export/sites/default/Documents/Projects/AppliedResearch/CLIMATE/ESPON_Climate_Final_Report-Part_B-MainReport.pdf, accessed 1st Feb 2013.
ESPON (2003) ESPON 2006 Project 1.3.1, 1st Interim Report, http://www.espon.eu/export/sites/default/Documents/Projects/AppliedResearch/CLIMATE/ESPON_Climate_Final_Report-Part_B-MainReport.pdf, accessed 1st May, 2012.
European Commission (EC) (2013) The regional and urban dimension of the crisis. Eighth progress report on economic, social and territorial cohesion, COM(2013) 463 final.
Foutakis, D. (2012) Spatial development and spatial resilience: concepts and policies. In: 10th Congress of the Greek Section of the ERSA, Thessaloniki June 2012, http://www.plandevel.auth.gr/ERSA_GR_CONF_2012/papers/Foutakis_paper.pdf, (accessed 1st February, 2013) (in Greek).
Giannakou, A. (2012) Patterns of suburban development and urban sprawl in Thessaloniki: Spatial dimensions of a multifaceted crisis. In: 10th Congress of the Greek Section of the ERSA, Thessaloniki June 2012, http://www.plandevel.auth.gr/ERSA_GR_CONF_2012/papers/Giannakou_paper.pdf, (accessed 1st February, 2013) (in Greek).
Hadjimichalis, C. (2011) Uneven geographical development and socio-spatial justice and solidarity: European regions after the 2009 financial crisis. European Urban and Regional Studies, Vol. 18(3), pp. 254-274, (accessed 15th March 2012).
Hudson, R. (2010) Resilient regions in an uncertain world: wishful thinking or a practical reality? Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, Vol. 3(1), pp. 11–25.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007) Glossary of Terms used in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr_appendix.pdf, (accessed 1st February, 2013).
Kafkalas, G. (2008) Spatial planning for Thessaloniki: The strategic dimension of an ongoing process. In: Kafkalas, G., Lambrianidis, L., Papamichos, N. (eds) Thessaloniki on the Verge: the city as a process of change. Athens: Kritiki, pp. 645–687 (in Greek).
Kurban, H. (2008) Constructing Urban Vulnerability Index for Major U.S. Cities, Howard University http://create.usc.edu/research/pastprojects/Kurban2008, (accessed 1st May, 2012).
Lambrianidis, L. (2011) Thessaloniki’s Arrested Development: Missed Opportunities. Antipode, Vol. 43(5), pp. 1801–1827.
Maloutas, T., Raco, M., Tasan-Kok, T. (2008) Conclusions – Competitiveness and Cohesion: One Discourse, Multiple Realities and New Challenges for Policy and Research. In: Ache P., Andersen H.T., Maloutas T., Raco M., and Tasan-Kok T. (eds) Cities between Competitiveness and Cohesion: Discourses, Realities and Implementation, Springer, pp. 259–273.
Martin, R. (2012) Regional economic resilience, hysteresis and recessionary shocks. Journal of Economic Geography, Vol. 12(1), pp. 1–32.
Ministry of Economy and Finance Greece (Min. Fin.) (2012) Report on the Public Investment Budget – 2013. http://www.minfin.gr/content-api/f/binaryChannel/minfin/datastore/83/c7/1a/83c71aea962392a5c41c25196e9798f43cfec462/application/pdf/ΙΣΗΓΗΤΙΚΗ+ΕΚΘΕΣΗ+2013.pdf, (accessed 1st January 2013) (in Greek).
ÖIR, Spatial Foresight, BBSR, Pöyry, BOKU-Met (2011) Regional Challenges in the Perspective of 2020 – Phase 2: Deepening and Broadening the Analysis. The impact of the economic crisis on regional disparities and vulnerabilities, Commissioned by European Commission, http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/studies/pdf/region2020_phase2/challenge2020_report.pdf, (accessed 1st May, 2012).
Organization for Planning and Environmental Protection of Thessaloniki (Or. Thes.) (2012) Draft Law for the new Regulatory Plan for Thessaloniki, http://www.orth.gr/UsersFiles/SXNOMRSTH.pdf, (accessed 1st February 2013) (in Greek).
Pendall, R., Foster, K., Cowell, M. (2010) Resilience and regions: building understanding of the metaphor. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, Vol. 3(1), pp. 71–84.
Raco, M. (2009) A growth agenda without growth: English spatial policy, sustainable communities, and the death of the neo-liberal project? Geo Journal, Vol. 77(2), pp. 153–165.
Raco, M., Flint, J. (2012) Introduction: Characterizing the ‘new’ politics of sustainability: from managing growth to coping with crisis. In: Flint, J., Raco, M. (eds) The Future of Sustainable Cities: Critical Reflections. Bristol: The Policy Press, pp. 3–28.
Raco, M., Street, E. (2012) Resilience Planning, Economic Change and The Politics of Post- recession Development in London and Hong Kong. Urban Studies, Vol. 49(5), pp. 1065–1087.
Schmidt-Thomé, P. (ed.) (2006) The Spatial Effects and Management of Natural and Technological Hazards in Europe. ESPON 1.3.1, Final Report EXECUTIVE SUMMARY, http://www.espon.eu/export/sites/default/Documents/Projects/ESPON2006Projects/ThematicProjects/NaturalHazards/fr-1.3.1_revised-full.pdf, (accessed 1st February, 2013).
Swanstrom, T., Chapple, K., Immergluck, D. (2009) Regional Resilience in the Face of Foreclosures: Evidence from Six Metropolitan Areas. Berkeley Institute of Urban and Regional Development Series, Working Paper 2009–05, http://escholarship.org/uc/item/23s3q06x, (accessed 1st April 2012).
Thoidou, E. (2012a) Vulnerability of metropolitan areas and the role of strategic spatial planning. In: 10th Congress of the Greek Section of the ERSA, Thessaloniki June 2012, http://www.plandevel.auth.gr/ERSA_GR_CONF_2012/papers/Thoidou_paper.pdf, (accessed 1st February, 2013) (in Greek).
Thoidou, E. (2012b) Strategic spatial planning in a period of crisis: the case of metropolitan areas. In: 3rd Pan-Hellenic Conference on Urban and Regional Planning and Development – electronic proceedings (CD-ROM), Volos: Dept. of Planning and Regional Development, University of Thessaly (in Greek).
Thoidou, E., Foutakis, D. (2006) Metropolitan Thessaloniki and urban competitiveness: Programming, transformation and implementation of a ‘vision’ for the city”. GEOGRAPHIES, Vol. 12, pp. 25–46 (in Greek).
Thoidou, E., Foutakis, D. (2012) Towards Resilient regions: Some conceptual and policy issues. In: AESOP 26th Annual Congress USB, Ankara: METU.
Vasilevska, Lj., Vasić, M. (2009) ‘Strategic Planning as a Regional Development Policy Mechanism –European Context’ SPATIUM International Review, No 21, pp. 19–2.
Živanović Miljković, J., Crnčević, T., Marić, I. (2012) Land use planning for sustainable development of peri-urban zones, SPATIUM International Review, No 28, pp. 15–22.